收录澳门博彩游戏娱乐官网

澳门博彩游戏娱乐官网

文/吴莉芳

【摘 要】本文针对课标中所提出的高中阶段应“特别注重提高学生用英语进行思维和表达的能力”的要求,从如何有效地运用教材培养学生的写作思维,怎样合理地进行写作训练及作文讲评的重要性等方面阐述了提高英语写作教学实效性的具体方法。

【关键词】依托教材;写作思维;分类训练;讲评

《普通高中英语课程标准(实验)》指出,高中阶段应“特别注重提高学生用英语进行思维和表达的能力”。我在根据多年的教学工作发现,学生们用心地写,教师们耐心地改,双方为此都付出了大量的时间和精力,然而却效果甚微。针对这一现象,我认为教师应该在以下几个方面做好,以提高英语写作教学的实效性。

第一:高一、高二阶段依托教材,培养学生的写作思维

我校采用的是北京师范大学出版社2004年8月出版的《普通高中课程标准实验教科书 英语》(Senior High English)。经过实践和摸索,我觉得北师版的教材贴近生活,具有很强的操作性。尤其是每个单元的Communication Workshop更是北师版的一大亮点,对学生的作文有很好的指导性。例如第四模块第11单元的communication workshop的教学内容为就当地某一事件以正式信函的格式给报纸写一封抗议信(write a formal letter on a public issue you are concerned about to a local newspaper)。教材所提供的范文示例(略)在突破写作难关中的作用和功效是不容忽视的。我首先引导学生熟悉正式信件的格式并且将非正式信件和正式信件进行对比、区别,其次指导学生对范文进行深入的分析,将文章分为写作目的(purpose)、观点(opinions)和建议(suggestions)三个部分并设计了以下表格:

表格的填写对学生进行了写作思维方式的培养和训练,学生自然也就清楚地了解了抗议信的写法。接着,我以厦门2006年发生的抵制海沧区PX工程的事件为话题,让学生根据老师提供的参考材料,以小组为单位写一封正式信件给厦门日报的《双语周刊》Common Talk Weekly,反映PX工程。学生通过讨论,先按照表格完成写作大纲的设计再模仿范文自然、流畅地写出了一封抗议信。

附参考范文:

Class4, Senior1

JiMei Middle School

9th June, 2008

Common Talk Weekly

122﹟Lvling Road, Xiamen

Dear Editor,

I am writing to protest about the plan for the PX Project in Xiamen. Many people have been against the idea from the start. Nevertheless, the PX Project has been approved by the central government.

First, the government says that the project will generate (V.) revenues of 80 million yuan a year. However, in my opinion, it will ruin the character of Xiamen, a beautiful garden city, especially the city’s largest tourist attraction Gulangyu. Although it will bring us industry and jobs, nobody wants to live in a dangerous, industrial city.

No matter what the government says, it is clear that the project will also affect our heath. Air pollution will get worse and this will do harm to people, for example, it can damage the nervous system, cause birth defects as well as cause cancer. It’s just like an atomic bomb in Xiamen.

To our delight, many citizens have taken action to fight against the PX Project. 5000 residents launched a quiet demonstration around the compound of the city government demanding relocation of the project. We should do everything we can to stop the project.

I look forward to reading more letters about this matter in your newspaper.

Yours Faithfully,

ⅹⅹⅹ

从以上步骤不难看出,教师充分依托教材,依据学生的认知规律,循序渐进地设置不同的任务,一步步引导学生解决问题,从而顺利地完成了文章的写作。

第二:高三阶段分类训练,提高学生的写作熟练度

从高三上学期9月份至下学期4月份的省质检为止,着重抓学生的写作,从文体和题材方面入手分类进行作文训练。每周当堂限时训练一篇作文,限定的时间根据我校学生的实际情况设定为15-20分钟。内容涉及信件(建议信、申请信、投诉信、邀请信、电子邮件),演讲稿,通知(口头和书面),看图日记,图表作文,说明文,议论文(正反观点类和选择观点类),记叙文(写人和写物),开放作文(图画加议论),招聘启事,新闻报道,类作文等。从4月份到6月份的高考冲刺阶段,要求学生熟练背诵并默写范文,以便在真正的考试中达到举一反三、灵活应变的效果。

以建议信为例:假定你是李华,你的朋友李明写信告诉你他因不善交际而苦恼。请根据下面提示给他回信,提出建议。

提示:1. 友善、乐于助人; 2. 多与他人交流; 3. 多参加澳门最新博彩娱乐大全。

注意:1. 词数120左右;2. 可以适当发挥,以使短文连贯;

Dear Liming,

I’m sorry to hear that you are feeling worried for failing to make friends. I quite sympathize with you and understand the great trouble you are suffering from.

In my personal opinion, it would be wise of you to take the following action. /There are some suggestions for you as follows: To start with, I suggest you be friendly and polite to others and always be willing/ready to help others, through which you will get well paid. Besides, you are supposed to communicate with others more, for it makes sense to strengthen your ties with friends and lots of misunderstandings can be avoided. In addition, you had better take an active part in various activities, such as sports, games, travels and otherwise. Not only can you get more chances to know more people but also you can improve your communication skills.

I hope you will find these suggestions useful. May you get out of your trouble sooner and live happily.

Yours sincerely,

Li Hua

在训练过程中,教师反复强调建议信的写作格式和惯用的措辞和语言,句子之间的连接词,段落之间的过渡句,以及关于建议的经典句型:

1.Why don’t you do…/ Why not do…

2.What/How about doing…

3. Have you considered doing…

4. You had better do…

5. You should do/ are supposed to do…

6. I suggest/advise/recommend doing…/that you (should) do…

多年的教学实践表明,通过高三的强化训练,学生的写作能力有了很大的提高,孩子们不仅懂得如何写作文,而且知道如何写好作文。

第三:注重作文的讲评,激发学生的写作兴趣

很多教师对作文的讲评不够重视,不是匆匆带过一篇范文便是让学生抄写一篇范文便草草了事。学生既不知道自己写得如何,更无从了解其他同学的情况,每次与范文比较之后,总觉得相距甚远,于是渐渐对写作失去了兴趣和热情。本人在教学实践中进行了新的尝试,每周拿出20分钟作为固定的作文讲评课,下面就以2006年高考湖南卷的书面表达为例和大家一起来分享我的教学体会。题目如下:

请根据下面的英文短诗,展开适当的想象,写一篇短文。标题为:

My Teacher Mr. Moore

There’s a teacher Mr. Moore,

Who is lovely and thirty-four.

Always encouraging us to try,

He leads us to world of “why”.

We all admire him more and more.

注意:1. 不得照抄短诗原文。2. 必须结合短诗的内容,发挥想象,适当展开。3. 必须突出短诗的主题,结构完整,语意连贯。4. 短文不能写成诗歌形式。5. 词数:120左右。

在批改学生作文的过程中,我收集了典型的错句和好句,在讲评课时分成以下教学步骤:

步骤一:短文共解

这是一篇给材料的作文,首先通过提问的方式,我让学生明确文章的写作内容,即Moore老师的年龄、性格、教学方式以及教学效果,接着依据审题的三要素确定出人称为第三人称,时态为现在时,文体为记叙文。

Analysis of the poem: (writing contents)

Name: Mr. Moore Age: 34 Personality: lovely

Way of teaching:encouraging—try leading—why Result: admire

步骤二:错句共析

将学生原汁原味的错句于课前三分钟抄写在黑板上,让大家互相讨论,接下来由错句的主人直接上台认领并改正自己的错误。这一招十分奏效,同学们不仅在热烈的讨论中激发了兴趣,而且通过讨论修正了原有的错误,印象尤为深刻。记得课堂上张微婷同学(第二个错句的主人)是这样评价自己的错误并警醒大家的:“这是一个非常低级的错误,请大家今后一定不要出现同样的问题!”作为教师,听到这样的话语真是感慨万千,的确,学生们只有在不断的自我认识中才会不断的进步。

1.He is one of the most popular teacher in our school.

2.Although he is 34, but we think he is lovely.

3.Mr. Moore, who is a handsome man, popular by students.

4.Mr. Moore always encouraging us to try.

5.Under Mr. Moore’s help, we become more and more better.

6.Because of his kindness, we all very like him.

步骤三:佳句共赏

俗话说的好,“好孩子是夸出来的”。将学生们的佳句呈现在屏幕上,并大张旗鼓地点名表扬,既满足了他们的成就感,同时又能触动其他同学的神经——渴望写出同等精彩的句子,这就是赏识教育的无穷魅力。作为教师,我总是对自己说:“不要忽略每一位学生的一点点闪光点,不要吝惜最真挚的赞美。”当然,要让更多的佳句涌现,教师的引导和同学的积累是必不可少的。在平时的课堂教学中,无论是课本还是练习,我总是带着同学们去欣赏每一个出彩的词汇、短语和句子,并要求他们摘抄在专用的本子上,以备随时取用。例如,李璟娴同学的漂亮句子Mr. Moore is to us what a beacon is to boats就是套用高三《导与练》中所复习到的方式状语从句A is to B what C is to D。

1.Mr. Moore is my favorite Chinese teacher in high school. He has made a far-reaching difference in my life. (惠敏)

2.34 though/as he is, he is that humorous and lovely. (娅娉)

3.Each time we see him, he is wearing a big smile. (海洋)

4.The instant I saw him, I liked him. (雅婷)

5.A beacon shows boats the right direction. Mr. Moore is to us what a beacon is to boats. (璟娴)

6.Mr. Moore is more a friend than a teacher. All students, whether they are smart or stupid, rich or poor, beautiful or ugly, Mr. Moore always tries his best to help them in need. (璟娴)

7.When we are disappointed, he is continually encouraging us not to give up. When we get tired, he is always telling jokes to us. When we feel puzzled, he is constantly encouraging us to try and leading us to world of “why”. (娅妮)

8.Let’s regard failure as a stepping stone to success. Just try your best and you can make it. (秋娥)

9.He is always encouraging us to try however hard it is. From his suggestions and encouragement, we have learnt an important rule: Almost all common troubles eventually go away! Something good is certain to happen in the end when you do not give up and just have a try. We believe that everything will turn out all right, even though it will not be that easy. (海洋、建水)

10.He is the best leader who leads us to explore the world. Ask more“why” rather than say“Yes, I know”, you will certainly find varieties of fresh things that you have ignored before. (晓芸)

步骤四:范文齐诵

课堂上让学生们诵读范文是十分必要的。在朗读的过程中,共同去发觉文章的写作结构,体会优美的表达和感受文中的情感,这对学生是很有帮助的。作为教师,我事先对范文进行一定的修饰,比较容易犯错的地方用红体字,过渡词用蓝体字,好词用紫体字,佳句用下划线等等。通过这样的方式,刺激学生们的视觉神经,从而使他们更好地把握文章的精髓。

My Teacher Mr. Moore

Of all my teachers, Mr. Moore is the one who impresses me most. Though he is 34, he looks very young for his age. And he’s one of the most popular teachers in our school.

Compared with other teachers, Mr. Moore pays more attention to his way of teaching. He tries various ways to make his classes lively and interesting. In his opinion, we should not only know “what”, but also understand “why”. So, instead of giving us answers immediately, he encourages us to think by ourselves whenever he puts forward questions. With his help, we’ve learned how to analyze and solve problems. What a wonderful world of “why” he leads us to!

He is such a learned person that we all admire him very much.

步骤五:佳作共享

最后,选出班级里写得最好的一篇文章复印并张贴出来让大家一起分享,共同进步。

【参考文献】

[1]罗慧英. 关注学生 提高高中英语写作教学的实效性. 中小学外语教学(中学篇),(7):1-6.2011

[2]周胜敏. 基于学生体验的高中英语写作教学. 中小学外语教学(中学篇), (9):39-42. 2010

[3]陈丽云. 图示理论、语料库和高中英语写作教学. 中小学外语教学(中学篇),(8):42-45. 2010

[4]教育部. 普通高中英语课程标准(实验). 北京:人民教育出版社,2003

[5]北京师范大学出版社. 普通高中课程标准实验教科书 英语④(教师教学用书). 北京:北京师范大学出版社,2004

[6]周弘.周弘老师教你赏识孩子.武汉出版社,2011

(作者单位:福建省厦门集美中学)

上一篇:高中英语课堂小组合作学习的有效指导
下一篇:最后一页
网友评论 高中英语写作教学点滴谈